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32 Heavy Metals and Minerals


Key Points to Understanding this Hair Test Result

Important exposure and health information is available in the blue links within each metal result.
Additional important information and FAQs via orange button below
Link to additional human support in green button at end of page.
These results are de-identified and can be sent to others (doctors, health practitioners, family) via the "email this page" link below


Additional Minerals Tested
Auxiliary Results
Extra Metals Tested.
Many are known as the Rare Earth Elements (REE)
Gadolinium (Gd), Titanium (Ti), Tin(Sn), Caesium (Cs), Cerium (Ce), Dysprosium (Dy), Erbium (Er), Europium (Eu), Holmium (Ho), Lanthanum (La), Lutetium (Lu), Neodymium (Nd), Praseodymium (Pr), Samarium (Sm), Scandium (Sc), Terbium (Tb), Thulium (Tm), Ytterbium (Yb), and Yttrium (Y)
Only Titanium (Ti), Cerium (Ce), Tin (Sn) and Scandium (Sc) were detected in this hair sample.
Results are shown below. All other metals were below the LOD.

NR: Not Relevant | NA: Not Available | LOD: Laboratories Limit of Detection for this Substance | ND: Not Detected (Below the Labs LOD)
Less Than is shown as "<" | mg: milligram | ug: microgram | All results are expressed in milligrams per Kilogram Hair (mg/Kg) unless indicated otherwise

Test Name
Can be used in Dental Implants See Toxicity of Nano-Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 -NP) Through Various Routes of Exposure: a Review
In medicine titanium is used to make hip and knee replacements, pace-makers, bone-plates and screws and cranial plates for skull fractures. Has also been documented to occur as a white pigment that may be used in sunscreens, lipsticks and toothpastes along with paints, fabrics and inks.

0.46 mg/kg

Average or Background Levels
Usually <0.725 mg/kg.
There is no indication that Titanium is needed in the body. Studies have shown that levels of Titanium in human hair are less than 0.725 mg/kg. Additional exposure routes and toxic health affects can be seen in Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data


Test Name
Tin (Sn)
"The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of ​1/8 tin and ​7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. Today, another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is widely used for food packaging as tin cans. However, some organotin compounds can be almost as toxic as cyanide. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both germanium and lead. Tin is the 49th most abundant element on Earth and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons." REF Tin(Sn) and TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR TIN AND TIN COMPOUNDS

0.35 mg/Kg

Average or Background Levels
Usually <0.3mg/kg.
Inorganic Sn has a lot less toxicity than organic Tin. Sources include: Food and tinned food, dental amalgams, cosmetics, preservatives, food and beverage containers, pewter, bronze, and anticorrosive platings. See TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR TIN AND TIN COMPOUNDS for more information.


Test Name
"Cerium is dumped in the environment in many different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries." See Chemical properties, Health effects and Environmental effects of cerium "The metal is used as a core for the carbon electrodes of arc lamps, for incandescent mantles for gas lighting. Cerium is used in aluminium and iron alloys, in stainless steel as a precipitation hardening agent, to make permanent magnets. Cerium oxide is part of the catalyst of catalytic converters used to clean up exhaust vehicles, it also catalyzes the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen gas. All new cars are now equipped with catalytic conveter which consist in a ceramic or metal substrate, a coating of aluminium and cerium oxides and a layer of finely dispersed metal such as platinum or rhodium, which is the active surface." See more in the link above.
Also see Environmental Impact of Platinum, Palladium, and Rhodium Emissions from Autocatalytic Converters – A Brief Review of the Latest Developments

0.01 mg/kg
Note that this is a very low result - barely detectable in the analysis.
Average levels in human toenails (similar to hair) found to be approximately 0.173 mg/kg.

Average or Background Levels
Unknown at this stage
There is no indication that Cerium is needed in the body. However studies have found large variation in average levels between 0.061 mg/kg - 0.164 mg/kg (with Standard Deviation of 0.237 mg/kg) of Cerium in Human Hair. See A new rapid treatment of human hair for elemental determination by inductively coupled mass spectrometry Additionally, a large 2011 study found a mean Cerium of 0.258 mg/kg (with Standard Deviation of 0.308 mg/kg) in Human Hair


Test Name
"Scandium is one of the rare chemicals, that can be found in houses in equipment such as colour televisions, fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps and glasses. The use of scandium is still growing, due to the fact that it is suited to produce catalysers and to polish glass." See Chemical properties, Health effects and Environmental effects of Scandium "The main application by volume is in aluminium-scandium alloys for the aerospace industry and for sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, etc.) which rely on high performance materials. It has been shown to reduce solidification cracking during the welding of high strength aluminium alloys."

1.30 mg/kg

Average or Background Levels
Background or average levels in Human Hair are unknown at this stage. Animals are often less than 0.1 mg/kg. Probably less than 0.1 mg/kg or even less in Humans. Average levels in human toenails (similar to hair) found to be approximately 0.01 mg/kg. Further research needed and is ongoing.
There is no indication that Scandium is needed in the body.
Note that Scandium can increase in plasma (and as a flow on consequence may also increase in hair) in patients with Kidney disease. Additionally, a large 2011 study found a mean Scandium of 0.027 mg/kg (with Standard Deviation of 0.00 mg/kg) in Human Hair


Note that many of the Rare Earth Elements listed here (including Cerium and Scandium) may be used in hair treatments and as such can introduce an external (rather than internal) exposure. "The present invention relates to the use of rare earth elements for hair improvement, more particularly cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), europium (Eu), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), Holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd), Use for preventing hair loss, promoting hair growth, hair growth, removing and preventing dandruff, or promoting black hair production of rare earth elements selected from the group consisting of lutetium (Lu) and mixtures thereof, or salts or oxides thereof About." This information is from a 2007 Google Patent Application It is unknown if in fact any current hair treatment products (2020) on the market contain these Rare Earth Elements.
Further Health & Toxicology Information on the Rare Earth Elements can be found at A Literature Review of the Health and Ecological Effects of the Rare Earth Elements and on this recent 2013 review entitled Toxicological Evaluations of Rare Earths and Their Health Impacts to Workers: A Literature Review
Also see Rare earth elements: A review of applications, occurrence, exploration, analysis, recycling, and environmental impact 2020
A lot of toxicology information for the REE - Toxicological Evaluations of Rare Earths and Their Health Impacts to Workers: A Literature Review 2013
And - Rare Earth Elements in the Soil Environment 2016
And a recent article to compare REE in human hair between miners and non-miners - Rare earth elements in human hair from a mining area of China 2013
Summary of the industry usage of rare earth elements (REEs)
rare earth metals

REF: An Updated Review of Toxicity Effect of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Aquatic Organisms; Animals 2020, 10, 1663; doi:10.3390/ani10091663

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